Yes: Using our renewable fuels key to a comfortable future
The U.S. relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy needs, and a large portion of that use is for producing electricity.
Coal-fired power plants provide 30 percent of electricity generation by the country’s utilities, with natural gas contributing 34 percent and nuclear power about 20 percent.
In contrast, renewables provide only 10 percent of overall U.S. energy use and 15 percent of the nation’s electricity, split about equally between hydropower and wind.
Critics say this is far too low for renewables to be a major contributor to electricity generation in the foreseeable future. But the critics’ conclusion is wrongheaded for at least three reasons.
One is that burning fossil fuel emits greenhouse gases linked to climate change and contributes to poor air quality. There is a growing consensus that the world needs to rely far less on them going forward.
The second reason is that while nuclear power does not contribute directly to greenhouse gas emissions, most analysts think it unlikely that it will be a bigger force in the future. Nuclear power is too expensive in its present form, the public doesn’t trust it, and it remains hobbled by the unresolved questions of how to dispose of radioactive waste effectively and with public acceptance.
The third reason that negative views of renewable energy’s potential are off the mark is simply that much has changed in the last few years in the technologies themselves and their cost.
A good indicator is that more than half of electricity generation capacity added to the U.S. grid in 2016 came from renewables. Globally, two-thirds of new generating capacity came from renewable sources.
The reasons are falling prices and improved efficiency.
As noted energy expert Hal Harvey, the CEO of San Francisco’s Energy Innovation, said in 2016, “a clean future now costs less than a dirty one.”
Indeed, in Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska and certain parts of Texas, wind turbines can generate electricity at a lower cost, even without subsidies, than any other technology.
Thus, moving toward renewable energy makes a lot of economic, environmental and public health sense.
Still, some argue that renewables will need to prove themselves further in the marketplace and that we need better ways to store the electricity for periods when wind is scarce and the sun isn't shining.
The overwhelming evidence today is that neither obstacle is as formidable as we once thought. Battery storage technology, for example, is improving rapidly and costs are falling, much as we saw with the advent of flat-screen televisions.
The earliest impact will be in those areas of the nation that already are making the leap to renewables. States in the top 10 for electricity derived from renewables are a diverse lot, suggesting that partisanship and ideology are not important factors. They are Iowa, South Dakota, Kansas, Oklahoma, California, North Dakota, Vermont, Colorado, Minnesota and Nevada.
Similarly, cities that already rely on renewables for 100 percent of their electricity include liberal Burlington, Vermont, but also conservative Georgetown in oil-rich Texas.
The mayor of Georgetown put it well: “We’re doing this because it is good for our citizens. Cheaper electricity is better. Clean energy is better than fossil fuels.”
It is a widely shared sentiment today, with many other cities, large and small, pledging to reach the same goal, including San Francisco, Orlando, St. Louis and Portland.
Similarly, most states have set impressive goals for renewable energy, with a few aiming very high. California and New York aspire to having 50 percent of their energy generated from renewables by 2030, while Hawaii expects to hit 100 percent by 2045.
All this is possible because we are in the midst of an energy revolution that promises impressive dividends and a bright future.
The benefits in improved air quality, public health and reduced greenhouse gas emissions are substantial, and recent studies tell us they will grow over time while also increasing employment and strengthening the economy.
Michael Kraft is professor emeritus of political science and public and environmental affairs at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. Readers may write him at UWGB, 2420 Nicolet Dr., MAC B310, Green Bay, WI 54311 or email him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
No: Super-clean natural gas allows us to tap less reliable, more expensive renewables
It’s official. U.S. natural gas production has reached record highs.
The federal Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports natural gas production for 2017 reached “the highest volume on record.”
The U.S. has led the world in natural gas production since 2009, thanks to technological breakthroughs that unlocked previously inaccessible energy reserves.
Almost a decade later, we’re still going strong — beating our own records and producing enough natural gas in 2017 to heat every home in America for three years.
Not that natural gas is only about heating or cooking. Reliable and affordable, it's become the leading fuel for U.S. electricity generation.
That development has led to another record that may surprise some people: The United States leads the world in reduction of carbon emissions — which have dropped to nearly 25-year lows thanks largely to increased use of clean natural gas — especially in power generation.
The environmental benefits don’t stop there. A combination of natural gas, cleaner motor fuels and technological innovations have contributed to a 73 percent decrease in the combined emissions of six key air pollutants between 1970 and 2016.
And that progress occurred even while we’ve seen increases in GDP, energy consumption and vehicle miles traveled. America’s natural gas and oil industry is behind a significant share of those emissions-reducing innovations, investing hundreds of billions of dollars to improve the environmental performance of fuels and operations.
It all adds up to a conclusion worth underscoring: The United States is succeeding in reducing greenhouse gas emissions while leading the world in natural gas and oil production.
In other words, we don’t have to choose between energy security, a healthy economy and our modern standard of living on the one hand and emissions reductions on the other.
Nor do we have to choose between renewables and natural gas when it comes to electricity generation. In fact, natural gas is an essential partner that enables integration of intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar — providing reliable power when the wind doesn’t blow and the sun doesn’t shine.
In a report published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, climate researchers studying renewable energy plants across 26 countries found that natural gas and renewables are “highly complementary” and “they should be jointly installed to meet the goals of cutting emissions and ensuring a stable supply.”
That practical conclusion is reinforced by government projections indicating natural gas and oil will supply more than 60 percent of U.S. energy needs in 2040, even under optimistic scenarios for growth in renewables. Further, worldwide energy demand will jump almost 30 percent in the coming decades.
With our record-breaking production, the U.S. is well-positioned to fuel sustained economic growth through natural gas and oil development. The industry supports 10.3 million American jobs across a range of industries, with affordable energy spurring a manufacturing renaissance.
We can add more jobs through energy exports — yet another welcome byproduct of our prolific natural gas development. Exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) nearly quadrupled in 2017 while maintaining historically low domestic prices.
The United States is a net natural gas exporter for the first time in nearly 60 years — generating jobs here at home and providing stable energy to U.S. allies.
Combining economic and climate benefits, natural gas is already a win-win energy source here at home. But LNG exports can replicate that winning combination globally, potentially reducing worldwide emissions as other nations, including developing countries, turn to U.S. LNG as a clean energy source.
We may soon have to make some room on the podium as other nations join us setting records in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Talk about a win-win situation for Earth Day!
Todd Snitchler is Group Director of Market Development at the American Petroleum Institute and a leading expert on environmental regulations. He earned a law degree at Akron University and holds a bachelor’s degree from Grove City College. Readers may write him at API, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070.